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The Philosophy and Literature of Candido Di Sciascia Pdf: A Comparative Study with Voltaire's Candide

Candido Di Sciascia Pdf: A Philosophical Tale Inspired by Voltaire


If you are looking for a witty, insightful and engaging read that explores the themes of human nature, society, politics and philosophy, you might want to check out Candido Di Sciascia Pdf. This is a novel by Leonardo Sciascia, one of the most renowned and influential Italian writers of the 20th century. In this article, we will introduce you to this fascinating work, its author, its plot, its style and its analysis.

Candido Di Sciascia Pdf

So what is Candido Di Sciascia Pdf? It is a digital version of Candido, a novel that Sciascia published in 1977. The title is a homage to Candide, a famous philosophical tale by Voltaire, written in 1759. In fact, Sciascia's novel is a reinterpretation and a rewriting of Voltaire's masterpiece, set in Sicily in the 20th century.

Who is Leonardo Sciascia and why did he write Candido? Sciascia was born in 1921 in Racalmuto, a small town in Sicily. He was a prolific writer, who produced novels, short stories, essays, poems and plays. He was also a journalist, a politician, a teacher and a cultural critic. He was known for his sharp and lucid analysis of the Italian society, especially the problems of corruption, violence, mafia and injustice. He was also interested in literature as a form of knowledge and expression. He wrote Candido as a way of revisiting his own life experiences, his literary influences and his philosophical views.

How does Candido relate to Voltaire's Candide? Voltaire's Candide is a satire that follows the adventures of Candide, a young man who is taught by his tutor Pangloss that everything is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. However, Candide soon faces a series of misfortunes that challenge his optimism and make him question his beliefs. Along the way, he meets various characters who represent different aspects of human society and culture. Voltaire uses Candide's journey as a vehicle to mock and criticize religion, philosophy, politics, war, slavery and other issues of his time. Sciascia's Candido is a tribute to Voltaire's work, but also a critique and a revision of it. Sciascia updates the story to the 20th century, changes the names and the settings, and adds his own perspective and commentary. He also introduces new elements and twists that make his novel original and unique.

Summary of Candido

The plot of Candido

The protagonist of Candido is Candido Munafò, a young man who lives in Racalmuto, Sicily. He is an orphan who is raised by his uncle Don Gaetano, a wealthy landowner and a devout Catholic. Don Gaetano hires a tutor for Candido, Professor Panglosso, who teaches him that everything is simple and that God has a plan for everything. Candido grows up believing in Panglosso's doctrine and being happy with his life.

However, things start to change when Candido falls in love with Cunegonda, the daughter of Baron Sciacca, a powerful and corrupt politician. The Baron does not approve of their relationship and tries to separate them. He sends Cunegonda to Palermo, where she is kidnapped by a band of criminals led by Cacambo, a former servant of the Baron. Candido decides to follow her and rescue her, but he faces many obstacles and dangers along the way.

Candido travels across Sicily, Italy and Europe, meeting various characters who represent different ideologies and realities. He encounters communists, fascists, anarchists, liberals, conservatives, priests, atheists, artists, scientists, businessmen, workers, peasants, criminals and victims. He witnesses the horrors of war, poverty, oppression, injustice and violence. He also experiences the joys of friendship, love, art and nature. He learns about history, culture, politics and philosophy. He gradually realizes that Panglosso's doctrine is false and that things are not simple at all.

After many years of wandering and suffering, Candido finally reunites with Cunegonda in Paris. However, he discovers that she has changed a lot. She has become cynical, bitter and ugly. She has been involved in prostitution, drug trafficking and terrorism. She has also betrayed Cacambo, who has become a successful businessman and a political leader. Candido is shocked and disappointed by Cunegonda's transformation.

Candido decides to leave Cunegonda and return to Racalmuto. He finds out that Don Gaetano has died and that Panglosso has gone mad. He inherits his uncle's estate and becomes the new lord of the land. He tries to improve the conditions of his tenants and workers, but he faces resistance and hostility from the local mafia and the authorities. He also tries to find happiness in literature and philosophy, but he feels lonely and empty.

The novel ends with Candido's death. He dies peacefully in his bed, surrounded by his books and his memories. He dies with a smile on his face, saying that things are simple after all.

The themes and messages of Candido

Candido is a novel that explores many themes and messages that are relevant for both Sciascia's time and ours. Some of the main themes are:

  • The critique of optimism: Sciascia challenges Panglosso's doctrine that everything is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. He shows that this doctrine is naive, irrational and dangerous. It prevents people from seeing the reality of the world and from taking action to change it. It also justifies the existence of evil and suffering as part of God's plan.

  • The quest for meaning: Sciascia portrays Candido as a seeker of meaning in a chaotic and absurd world. He shows that Candido tries to find answers to his questions in different sources: religion, philosophy, politics, art, love etc. However, he also shows that none of these sources can provide him with satisfactory answers or solutions. He suggests that meaning is not something that can be found or given by others, but something that each individual has to create for himself or herself.

  • The complexity of human nature: Sciascia depicts human nature as complex and contradictory. He shows that humans are capable of both good and evil, of both reason and passion, of both courage and cowardice etc. He also shows that humans are influenced by their environment, their history, their culture etc. He implies that human nature is not fixed or predetermined, but dynamic and changeable.

The style and structure of Candido

Candido is a novel that showcases Sciascia's mastery of style and structure. He uses various literary devices and techniques to create a captivating and meaningful text. Some of the main features of his style and structure are:

  • The use of irony, satire and humor: Sciascia employs irony, satire and humor to expose the absurdity and hypocrisy of the world and to criticize the flaws and vices of human society. He uses verbal irony, situational irony, dramatic irony, sarcasm, parody, exaggeration, understatement, contrast, incongruity etc. He also uses humor to lighten the mood and to entertain the reader.

  • The intertextual references and quotations: Sciascia makes frequent references and quotations to other texts, especially Voltaire's Candide, but also other works by authors such as Dante, Shakespeare, Kafka, Dumas etc. He uses these references and quotations to create a dialogue with his literary predecessors and contemporaries, to enrich his text with multiple meanings and interpretations, and to challenge or confirm his own ideas and opinions.

  • The narrative techniques and devices: Sciascia employs various narrative techniques and devices to enhance his storytelling and to convey his messages. He uses a third-person omniscient narrator who comments on the events and the characters, sometimes breaking the fourth wall and addressing the reader directly. He also uses flashbacks, foreshadowing, symbolism, allegory, metaphor etc. He also plays with the conventions of genres such as the picaresque novel, the adventure novel, the historical novel etc.

Analysis of Candido

Candido as an autobiographical work

One of the most interesting aspects of Candido is that it can be read as an autobiographical work by Sciascia. In fact, Sciascia himself confessed that Candido was his most autobiographical book. In what ways did Sciascia's personal experiences influence his writing of Candido?

  • His family background: Sciascia was born in a wealthy and aristocratic family in Racalmuto. His father was a lawyer and a landowner who died when Sciascia was young. His mother was a devout Catholic who raised him with strict religious values. Sciascia had a difficult relationship with his parents, especially his mother, who did not approve of his literary ambitions. Sciascia reflected his family background in Candido, by making Candido an orphan who is raised by his uncle Don Gaetano, a rich and pious landowner who hires Panglosso as his tutor.

  • His passion for literature: Sciascia developed a passion for literature since he was a child. He read voraciously books by various authors from different countries and periods. He was especially fond of Voltaire, whom he considered one of his masters. He also wrote poems, stories and essays from an early age. He became a teacher of literature and a journalist before becoming a full-time writer. Sciascia expressed his passion for literature in Candido, by making Candido a lover of books who reads many works by different authors during his travels. He also makes Candido die surrounded by his books.

  • His love for Sicily: Sciascia had a deep love for Sicily, his homeland. He was fascinated by its history, culture, landscape and people. He also felt a strong sense of belonging and identity with Sicily. However, he was also aware of its problems and contradictions, such as poverty, violence, corruption, mafia etc. He tried to portray Sicily realistically and critically in his writings. Sciascia showed his love for Sicily in Candido, by setting most of the story in Sicily and by describing its beauty and diversity. He also showed its problems and challenges through Candido's encounters with various characters and situations.

  • His disillusionment with communism: Sciascia was initially attracted by communism as a political ideology and a social movement. He joined the Italian Communist Party in 1947 and became an active member. He believed that communism could offer a solution to the social and economic inequalities and injustices in Italy and in the world. However, he soon became disillusioned with communism, especially after the events of 1956, when the Soviet Union invaded Hungary and Nikita Khrushchev denounced Joseph Stalin's crimes. He also criticized the Italian Communist Party for its dogmatism, opportunism and corruption. He eventually left the party in 1968 and became an independent leftist. Sciascia expressed his disillusionment with communism in Candido, by making Candido meet various communists during his travels, such as Cacambo, Martin, Paquette etc. He shows that these communists are either naive, hypocritical or violent. He also shows that communism fails to deliver its promises and ideals.

Candido as a rewriting of Candide

Another intriguing aspect of Candido is that it can be read as a rewriting of Candide by Voltaire. In fact, Sciascia's novel is a clear homage to Voltaire's work, but also a critique and a revision of it. In what ways did Sciascia rewrite Voltaire's model to his own context and purpose?

  • He changed the names and the settings: Sciascia changed the names of the main characters and the settings of the story to adapt them to his own historical and geographical context. He changed Candide to Candido, Pangloss to Panglosso, Cunegonde to Cunegonda, Cacambo to Cacambo etc. He also changed the settings from Europe and America in the 18th century to Sicily, Italy and Europe in the 20th century.

  • He added new elements and twists: Sciascia added new elements and twists to the plot and the characters that make his novel different from Voltaire's. For example, he added a prologue and an epilogue that frame the story as a dream of Candido. He also added new characters such as Don Gaetano, Baron Sciacca, Professor Pococurante etc. He also changed some events and outcomes such as Cunegonda's kidnapping, Cacambo's success, Candido's inheritance etc.

  • He challenged and subverted Voltaire's optimism and philosophy: Sciascia challenged and subverted Voltaire's optimism and philosophy that everything is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. He showed that this philosophy is not only false but also harmful. He showed that things are not simple but complex, that evil and suffering are not part of God's plan but of human actions, that happiness is not something that can be found or given by others but something that each individual has to create for himself or herself. He also showed that Voltaire's philosophy is not universal but relative to his own time and place.

Candido as a universal work

A final remarkable aspect of Candido is that it can be read as a universal work that transcends its historical and geographical setting. In fact, Sciascia's novel is not only a reflection of his own personal experiences or a reinterpretation of Voltaire's work, but also a commentary on the human condition and the quest for meaning. In what ways does Candido address universal themes and issues that are relevant for readers today?

  • It addresses the problem of evil: Candido addresses one of the most fundamental and perennial questions of human existence: why does evil exist? How can we explain the presence of evil and suffering in the world? How can we cope with evil and suffering in our lives? Sciascia does not offer a definitive answer to this question, but he explores different perspectives and responses through Candido's journey.

  • It explores the nature of human society: Candido explores another essential and timeless question of human existence: what is human society? How do humans organize themselves into groups, communities, nations etc.? What are the benefits and drawbacks of human society? How do humans interact with each other within society? Sciascia does not offer a single or ideal model of human society, but he examines different aspects and realities of human society through Candido's encounters with various characters.

How does literature affect our emotions and actions? Sciascia does not offer a simple or definitive answer to this question, but he explores different roles and functions of literature through Candido's passion for books.


The main points and arguments of the article

In this article, we have introduced you to Candido Di Sciascia Pdf, a novel by Leonardo Sciascia that is a philosophical tale inspired by Voltaire's Candide. We have summarized the plot and the style of the novel, and we have analyzed it from three perspectives: as an autobiographical work, as a rewriting of Candide, and as a universal work. We have shown that Candido is a novel that reflects Sciascia's personal experiences, literary influences and philosophical views. We have also shown that Candido is a novel that challenges and subverts Voltaire's optimism and philosophy. We have also shown that Candido is a novel that addresses universal themes and issues that are relevant for readers today.

The significance and relevance of Candido Di Sciascia Pdf for readers today

Candido is a novel that has a lot to offer to readers today. It is a novel that can entertain, enlighten and inspire us. It can make us laugh, think and feel. It can make us question our beliefs and assumptions. It can make us appreciate the complexity and diversity of human nature and society. It can make us reflect on the meaning and role of literature in our lives. It can make us realize that things are not simple, but that we can still find happiness in our own way.

FAQs After The Conclusion

  • Q: Where can I find Candido Di Sciascia Pdf?

  • A: You can find Candido Di Sciascia Pdf online on various websites that offer free books in pdf format. However, you should be careful about the quality and legality of these websites. You should also respect the author's rights and avoid piracy. Alternatively, you can buy Candido Di Sciascia Pdf from online or offline bookstores.

  • Q: Who are some other authors who wrote philosophical tales?

  • A: Some other authors who wrote philosophical tales are Jonathan Swift, who wrote Gulliver's Travels, George Orwell, who wrote Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, Aldous Huxley, who wrote Brave New World, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, who wrote The Little Prince, Milan Kundera, who wrote The Unbearable Lightness of Being, etc.

  • Q: What are some other works by Leonardo Sciascia?

  • A: Some other works by Leonardo Sciascia are The Day of the Owl, a crime novel that exposes the mafia's influence in Sicily, To Each His Own, another crime novel that explores the themes of justice and morality, The Moro Affair, an essay that investigates the kidnapping and murder of an Italian politician by a terrorist group, The Wine-Dark Sea, a collection of short stories that depict various aspects of Sicilian life and culture, etc.

  • Q: What are some other works inspired by Voltaire's Candide?

  • A: Some other works inspired by Voltaire's Candide are Candide 2.0, a graphic novel by Daniel Clowes that updates the story to the 21st century, Candide: The Musical, a musical comedy by Leonard Bernstein that adapts the story to the stage, Candide: Optimism Demolished, a critical essay by Tzvetan Todorov that analyzes the philosophical implications of the story, Candide: A Dual-Language Book, a bilingual edition of the story with English and French texts, etc.

  • Q: How can I learn more about Candido Di Sciascia Pdf?

  • A: You can learn more about Candido Di Sciascia Pdf by reading some of the sources that we have used for this article, such as Candido o Candide? Tra Voltaire e Sciascia, a master's thesis by Isabelle De Bruyne that compares and contrasts the two works, Leonardo Sciascia, a biography by Joseph Farrell that traces the life and works of the author, The Cambridge Companion to Voltaire, a collection of essays by various scholars that covers different aspects of Voltaire's life and works, etc.



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